边境小额贸易（以下简称边贸，海关通关参数贸易方式代码：4019，简称 边境小额 ，边民互市贸易除外），系指经政府外经贸、商务部门批准有边境小额贸易经营权的企业，通过国家指定的陆地边境口岸，与毗邻国家边境地区的企业或其他贸易机构之间进行的贸易活动。
trade is in principle not different from domestic trade as the and the behavior of parties involved in a trade does not change depending on whether trade is across a border or not. The main is that trade is typically more costly than domestic trade. The reason is that a border typically imposes costs such as tariffs, time costs due to border delays and costs with country such as language, the legal system or a different culture.
Another between domestic and trade is that factors of such as capital and labor are typically more mobile within a country than across countries. Thus trade is mostly to trade in goods and services, and only to a lesser extent to trade in capital, labor or other factors of . Then trade in good and services can serve as a for trade in factors of . Instead of importing the factor of a country can import goods that make intensive use of the factor of and are thus embodying the factor. An example is the import of labor-intensive goods by the United States from China. Instead of importing Chinese labor the United States is importing goods from China that were produced with Chinese labor.
trade is also a branch of economics, which, together with finance, forms the larger branch of economics.
Several different models have been proposed to predict patterns of trade and to analyze the effects of trade policies such as tariffs.
 Ricardian model
Main article: Ricardian model
The Ricardian model focuses on advantage and is perhaps the most important concept in trade theory. In a Ricardian model, countries in producing what they produce best. Unlike other models, the Ricardian framework predicts that countries will fully instead of producing a broad array of goods. Also, the Ricardian model does not directly consider factor , such as the relative amounts of labor and capital within a country.
 Heckscher-Ohlin model
Main article: Heckscher-Ohlin model
The Heckscher-Ohlin model was produced as an to the Ricardian model of basic advantage. Despite its greater it did not prove much more accurate in its . However from a point of view it did provide an elegant solution by the price mechanism into trade theory.
The theory argues that the pattern of trade is by in factor . It predicts that countries will export those goods that make intensive use of locally abundant factors and will import goods that make intensive use of factors that are locally scarce. Empirical problems with the H-O model, known as the Leontief paradox, were exposed in empirical tests by Wassily Leontief who found that the United States tended to export labor intensive goods despite having a capital abundance.
 Specific factors model
In this model, labour mobility between is possible while capital is immobile between in the short-run. Thus, this model can be as a ‘short run’ version of the Heckscher-Ohlin model. The specific factors name refers to the given that in the short-run specific factors of , such as physical capital, are not easily between . The theory suggests that if there is an increase in the price of a good, the owners of the factor of specific to that good will profit in real terms. , owners of opposing specific factors of (i.e. labour and capital) are likely to have opposing agendas when lobbying for controls over of labour. , both owners of capital and labour profit in real terms from an increase in the capital endowment. This model is ideal for . This model is ideal for income but awkward for the pattern of trade!
 New Trade Theory
Main article: New Trade Theory
New Trade theory tries to explain several facts about trade, which the two main models above have with. These include the fact that most trade is between countries with similar factor endowment and levels, and the large amount of (ie foreign direct ) which exists. In one example of this framework, the economy exhibits , and returns to scale.
 Gravity model
Main article: Gravity model of trade
The Gravity model of trade presents a more empirical analysis of trading patterns rather than the more models discussed above. The gravity model, in its basic form, predicts trade based on the distance between countries and the of the countries’ economic sizes. The model mimics the Newtonian law of gravity which also considers distance and physical size between two objects. The model has been proven to be strong through analysis. Other factors such as income level, between countries, and trade policies are also included in expanded versions of the model.
 of trade
trade was regulated through bilateral treaties between two nations. For centuries under the belief in most nations had high tariffs and many on trade. In the 19th century, in Britain, a belief in free trade became paramount. This belief became the dominant thinking among western nations since then despite the that adoption of the policy coincided with the general decline of Great Britain. In the years since the Second World War, treaties like the GATT and World Trade have attempted to create a globally regulated trade structure. These trade have often resulted in protest and with claims of unfair trade that is not mutually .
Free trade is usually most strongly supported by the most powerful nations, though they often engage in selective for those which are important such as the tariffs applied to by the United States and Europe. The and the United Kingdom were both strong advocates of free trade when they were dominant, today the United States, the United Kingdom, Australia and Japan are its greatest . However, many other countries (such as India, China and Russia) are becoming advocates of free trade as they become more powerful . As tariff levels fall there is also an to negotiate non tariff measures, including foreign direct , and trade . The latter looks at the cost with meeting trade and customs .
interests are usually in favour of free trade while sectors often support . This has changed somewhat in recent years, however. In fact, lobbies, in the United States, Europe and Japan, are chiefly for rules in the major trade treaties which allow for more measures in than for most other goods and services.
During there is often strong domestic pressure to increase tariffs to protect domestic . This occurred around the world during the Great . Many have attempted to portray tariffs as the reason behind the collapse in world trade that many believe seriously deepened the .
The of trade is done through the World Trade at the global level, and through several other regional such as MERCOSUR in South America, NAFTA between the United States, Canada and Mexico, and the European Union between 27 states. The 2005 Buenos Aires talks on the planned of the Free Trade Area of the Americas (FTAA) failed largely due to from the of Latin American nations. Similar such as the MAI ( Agreement on ) have also failed in recent years.
 Risks in trade
The risks that exist in trade can be divided into two major groups
也就是说考取资格证后从发证日开始算可以在三年内注册，超过第三年的最后期限仍没有注册就失效了， 2.注册后报关员资格证注册后海关会再发报关员证凭以履行报关员工作，需要每年参加年审，只要每年的年审通过说明注册一直有效，资格证页就是随着一直有效， 3.注销注册离开你作为注册的报关员工作的企业需要注销你的注册，注销后到再次找到新的企业注册前的这段时间被称为脱离报关员岗位期间，这个期间你的报关员资格证仍然有效