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外贸买单出口,外贸英语方向的研究生

外贸买单出口

外贸做实务就ok了,不需要用到研究生学历。而且你有报关报检双证。

外贸英语属于外语,必须考二外的。

浅探当代国际贸易新理论对我国对外贸易战略的启示
在我国对外贸易规模不断扩大的今天,要想提高我国的国际竞争力,必须重视国际上20世纪70年代以后兴起的国际贸易新理论,实施创新的对外贸易战略,打造具有国际竞争优势的产业。本文通过研究当代国际贸易理论的新发展对我国外贸发展的启示,分析探讨了我国应该如何制定相应的政策,采取相应的对策来促进我国对外贸易的发展。

一、当代国际贸易理论的新进展

二战后随着科学技术的进步和生产力的不断发展,国际贸易的规模、商品结构和地区分布也发生了很大变化。经济学家在国际贸易理论研究中不断探索,20世纪70年代以来先后出现的影响较大的国际贸易新理论有以下几种:

1、战略性贸易政策理论

战略性贸易政策理论产生于2O世纪7O年代以来“新贸易保护主义”盛行的背景之下,由美国经济学家保罗·克鲁格曼等人于2O世纪8O年代中期提出,主要内容包括两方面:(1)以内部规模经济为基础的利润转移理论;(2)以外部规模经济为基础的外部经济理论。

2、产业内贸易理论

20世纪70年代格鲁贝尔和劳埃德等人开创了产业内贸易理论研究,到20世纪80年代初美国经济学家克鲁格曼进一步推动了这一理论的发展。该理论不同于侧重论述产业间贸易的传统贸易理论,代写毕业论文它侧重研究贸易双方在同一产业中既出口又进口同类异质产品的产业内贸易。在不完全竞争产业中,规模经济和产品差异是产业内贸易形成的决定因素。

3、产品生命周期理论

产品生命周期理论由美国销售学家弗农于1966年首先提出,经威尔斯、赫希哲等人不断完善。产品生命周期理论认为,由于技术创新和扩散,制成品和生物一样具有生命周期。产品生命周期包括五个阶段:(1)新生期;(2)成长期;(3)成熟期;(4)销售下降期;(5)让与期。

4、国家竞争优势理论

20世纪80年代以来,美国哈佛大学的迈克尔·波特提出并完善了国家竞争优势理论。国家竞争优势理论与传统比较优势理论和要素禀赋理论不同之处在于,该理论认为一个国家之所以能够兴旺发达,其根本原因在于该国的国际竞争优势,这种竞争优势源于一个相互增强的系统,在这个系统中,有四个关键因素影响一国在国际市场上建立和保持竞争优势的能力,这四个因素是:(1)生产要素;(2)国内需求;(3)相关产业;(4)企业战略、组织和竞争度。

二、当代国际贸易新理论对我国对外贸易战略的启示

1、积极转化国家的竞争优势

比较优势是由一国资源禀赋和交易条件所决定的静态优势,是获取竞争优势的条件。竞争优势则是一种将潜在优势转化为现实优势的综合能力的作用结果。比较优势作为一种潜在优势,只有最终转化为竞争优势,才能形成真正的出口竞争力。根据生产要素禀赋,我国一直以来具有劳动力资源的比较优势,但是,在当今国际市场上劳动密集型产品的比较优势并不一定具有国际竞争优势。要确立把比较优势转换为竞争优势的外贸战略。

2、高新技术产业发展至关重要

由国际产品生命周期理论可以推知:创新国是国际贸易利益的最大获益者。这是因为:在产品的新生期和成长期,创新国以其技术优势垄断了国内和国际市场,因而可以获得大量超额垄断利润;在产品的成熟期进入所谓的“大规模生产”阶段,创新国可以获得巨额规模经济效益;在产品的销售下降期和让与期,创新国在国外投资建厂,输出其知识产权和品牌,延长其产品的生命周期,在国际市场上继续赚取利润。

3、发展高层次产业内贸易是提高对外贸易竞争力的重要手段

随着国际经济贸易的发展,产业内贸易在给各贸易国带来贸易利益的同时,
Probe into New Theory of Trade of China Foreign Trade Strategy
Growing scale of foreign trade in China today, in order to enhance China’s , must pay attention to the community 70 years after the 20th century Xingqi new theory of trade, the of the strategy, create an advantage in the industry. This paper studies the new of trade theory for the of China’s foreign trade, analysis of how China should formulate policies and take measures to promote the of China’s foreign trade.

First, the theory of trade, new progress

After World War II with the and progress and of the of trade size, structure and regional of goods, great changes have taken place. Theory of trade economist and explore the 20th century, has emerged since the 70’s new theory of trade, the following:

1, Strategic Trade Policy

Strategic trade policy arise from 7O 2O century since the “new trade ,” the of , the U.S. economist Paul Krugman, who in the mid 😯 2O century, proposed, mainly including two aspects : (1) internal economies of scale-based theory of profit transfer; (2) based on external economies of scale external economic theory.

2, intra-industry trade theory

20th century 70s Grubel and Lloyd, who created the industry trade theory, to the early 20th century U.S. economist Paul Krugman of 80 to further promote the of this theory. The theory is different from the focus on inter-industry trade paper the trade theory, on behalf of my thesis research is focused on trade, both sides in the same industry, the export of products they import the same industry trade. Not perfectly , economies of scale and product is the formation of intra-industry trade .

3, the product life cycle theory

Product life cycle theory Sales Vernon by the United States first proposed in 1966 by Prince, He Xizhe and others improved. Product life cycle theory, as and diffusion, and products, like life-cycle. Product life cycle consists of five stages: (1) Neonatal; (2) growth stage; (3) maturity; (4) decline of sales; (5) for and on.

4, Advantage of Nations

Since the 80s of the 20th century, Harvard’s Michael Porter and improve the Advantage of Nations. Advantage of Nations and the theory of advantage and factor theory of is, the theory that a country has been able to flourish, and the reason is the country’s advantage, this advantage derived from a mutually system, in this system, there are four key factors that affect a country in the market, establish and maintain a edge in the ability of these four factors are: (1) factors of ; (2) domestic demand; (3) related ; (4) business strategy, and degree.

Second, the theory of trade on China’s foreign trade strategy for new

1, the positive of the national advantage

advantage in natural resources by a country and trading determine the static strengths are the for advantage. advantage is a way to advantage the potential into real ability to effect the results. advantage as a potential advantage, only the final into a advantage, to form a real export . According to the factor endowment, along with China’s advantage in labor resources, but in today’s market, the advantage of labor-intensive products do not have an advantage. To establish the into in foreign trade strategy.

2, high-tech vital to the

By the product life cycle theory can be deduced: is the trade interests of the country’s biggest winners. This is because: the product of Neonatal and growth, and technical of its state monopoly of domestic and markets, and thus get a lot of excess monopoly profits; in product maturity into the so-called “mass ” stage, States can get huge economies of scale; in product sales were down period and give and of invest and build factories in foreign countries, the output of its property and brand to extend its product life Zhou Qi, in the market continue to make a profit.

3, the of high-level intra-industry trade is to improve the of an important means of foreign trade

With the economic and trade , intra-industry trade in all trading nations to bring trade interests,

翻译为:

外贸买单出口

在航运圈里,航运就是散货和油轮,物流就是集装箱。读出来,什么都可以做在航运圈里。就看你喜欢什么了。
1. Please provide (on separate paper) an chart of your .
请提供贵公司的组织结构图(每页纸分开)
2. Please indicate total sales ($) for your .
请说明贵公司大约的的总销售额
3. Please specify markets that you supply to and identify total sales per market.
请详细说明你们产品所对应的市场, 并说明每种市场的总销售额

4. How long have you been in business?
你们在这个行业经营了多久

5. Who are your major customers per market? (Please specify U.S., Europe, etc)
每一类市场的主要客户是谁(请详细阐明, 可以按照美国, 欧洲这样的分类方法)

6. What is your order volume both in units and U.S. $?
你们订单的数量是多少, 请分别按照货物单位和美金给出具体数额
a) Weekly, monthly, quarterly?
每周, 每月, 每季度分别多少

7. What is your capacity (units)?
你们的生产能力是多少 (按单位计算)

8. Which are your peak periods for orders (months)?
什么时候是你们订单的高峰期(按月份)

9. What is the average lead-time for initial orders (in weeks)? Re-orders?
你们初始订单的平均交货时间多多少 (按周计算)
再次下订单的平均交货时间是多少?

10. Describe your company’s .
a) Primary sites, b) Location and resources, c) Products by location, d) processes done at sites, e) Age of , f) Size of location in square feet.
请描述贵公司的生产环境
a. 主要生产场所
b. 具体位置和资源
c. 按地点分类的产品
d. 在产地完成的生产程序
e. 各种设备的年限
f. 生产场所的面积(按平方英尺计算)

11. How many employees are at each location?
每个产地有多少名员工

12. How many different products do you per year?
每年生产多少种不同的产品

13. Are any plant functions sub-? If yes, which functions are these and what % of this finished product does this represent?
有无任何工厂的生产被外包出去?
如果有, 请说明是何种产品工艺被外包, 其所占成品的百分比是多少

14. What is the capacity at each location?
每个产地的生产能力是多少

15. How many shifts do each location normally run? How many hours per shift?
每个产地的工作轮班是怎样制定的
每个班是多少小时

16. Do you have a Quality function? How many resources are allocated to this function?
你们是否设有质量管理的部门?
给这个部分安排了多少资源?(指资金, 人力上面的资源)

17. At what points of your is quality checked?
你们产品的质检在何时执行

18. Who is for quality in your ?
在贵公司, 谁来负责产品质量

19. Do you have a support computer system to track status of orders, costs, bill of materials, routing, EDI .?
你们是否有一套关于生产的电脑系统来追踪订单, 成本, 原材料帐单, 行程, 以及 无纸张贸易的能力

20. How are new designs or concepts developed at your company?
贵公司如何研发新的设计或者新的主张

21. Does your factory inspected and approved by large U.S retailers?
贵公司是否经过美国大型的零售商检验并批准?

22. Does your factory comply with social business practices (no child labor, nor prison labor, safety , etc.)?
贵公司是否遵守社会责任管理体系的经营方式( 不用童工, 不用监狱劳工, 安全准则等等)———这个应该是讲美国的那个SA8000标准, 楼主可以参考一下

外贸买单出口

Hello Sir/madam, your order still on the way, this is normal the query not tracked sometimes. I hope you can cancel the dispute and wait for more days in patience, I believe the parcel will arrive in the near future. please believe that we won’t make our clients bear any lose. If the parcel is returned or lost, we will refund you or send again without any reason, Please dont worry about that. thank you for your , thank you!

外贸买单出口

外贸买单出口

有些招牌代码用不了。好烦啊有些招牌代码用不了。好烦啊有些招牌代码用不了。好烦啊有些招牌代码用不了。好烦啊有些招牌代码用不了。好烦啊有些招牌代码用不了。好烦啊有些招牌代码用不了。好烦啊有些招牌代码用不了。好烦啊有些招牌代码用不了。